米: こめ: raw, uncooked rice. The kind you buy in bulk.
ご飯 : ごはん: cooked rice, but also food in general: "gohan tabetai?" = "Do you want to eat?" "bangohan" = "dinner", etc.
食べ物 ：たべもの： ???
料理：りょうり： cuisine of a certain country : "mexican food, italian food, indian food" bus also this is the word you use to compliment someone's cooking "your ryouri is jouzu!"